När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Daler
Inlägg: 370
Blev medlem: 12 december 2017, 20:01

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Daler » 7 januari 2018, 19:13

Abstract till artikeln Karl refererar till
The genetic origin of the Sami is enigmatic and contributions from Continental Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia have been proposed. To address the evolutionary history of northern and southern Swedish Sami, we have studied their mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and complete mtDNA genome sequences. While the majority of mtDNA diversity in the northern Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish Sami is accounted for by haplogroups V and U5b1b1, the southern Swedish Sami have other haplogroups and a frequency distribution similar to that of the Continental European population. Stratification of the southern Sami on the basis of occupation indicates that this is the result of recent admixture with the Swedish population. The divergence time for the Sami haplogroup V sequences is 7600 YBP (years before present), and for U5b1b1, 5500 YBP amongst Sami and 6600 YBP amongst Sami and Finns. This suggests an arrival in the region soon after the retreat of the glacial ice, either by way of Continental Europe and/or the Volga-Ural region. Haplogroup Z is found at low frequency in the Sami and Northern Asian populations but is virtually absent in Europe. Several conserved substitutions group the Sami Z lineages strongly with those from Finland and the Volga-Ural region of Russia, but distinguish them from Northeast Asian representatives. This suggests that some Sami lineages shared a common ancestor with lineages from the Volga-Ural region as recently as 2700 years ago, indicative of a more recent contribution of people from the Volga-Ural region to the Sami population.

Daler
Inlägg: 370
Blev medlem: 12 december 2017, 20:01

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Daler » 7 januari 2018, 19:43

Några fler "abstracts" och länkar till artiklarna. Orden "sami" eller "saami" ska finnas någonstans i artiklarna. Sökmotor: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608872/
Interpretations of genetic data concerning the prehistory of Europe have long been a subject of great debate, but increasing amounts of ancient and modern DNA data are now providing new and more informative evidence. Y-chromosome resequencing studies in Europe have highlighted the prevalence of recent expansions of male lineages, and focused interest on the Bronze Age as a period of cultural and demographic change. These findings contrast with phylogeographic studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which have been interpreted as supporting expansions from glacial refugia. Here we have undertaken a population-based resequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes in Europe and the Middle East, in 340 samples from 17 populations for which Y-chromosome sequence data are also available. Demographic reconstructions show no signal of Bronze Age expansion, but evidence of Paleolithic expansions in all populations except the Saami, and with an absence of detectable geographical pattern. In agreement with previous inference from modern and ancient DNA data, the unbiased comparison between the mtDNA and Y-chromosome population datasets emphasizes the sexbiased nature of recent demographic transitions in Europe.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23459685
North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21150888
The understanding of patterns of genetic variation within and among human populations is a prerequisite for successful genetic association mapping studies of complex diseases and traits. Some populations are more favorable for association mapping studies than others. The Saami from northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula represent a population isolate that, among European populations, has been less extensively sampled, despite some early interest for association mapping studies. In this paper, we report the results of a first genome-wide SNP-based study of genetic population structure in the Finnish Saami. Using data from the HapMap and the human genome diversity project (HGDP-CEPH) and recently developed statistical methods, we studied individual genetic ancestry. We quantified genetic differentiation between the Saami population and the HGDP-CEPH populations by calculating pair-wise F(ST) statistics and by characterizing identity-by-state sharing for pair-wise population comparisons. This study affirms an east Asian contribution to the predominantly European-derived Saami gene pool. Using model-based individual ancestry analysis, the median estimated percentage of the genome with east Asian ancestry was 6% (first and third quartiles: 5 and 8%, respectively). We found that genetic similarity between population pairs roughly correlated with geographic distance. Among the European HGDP-CEPH populations, F(ST) was smallest for the comparison with the Russians (F(ST)=0.0098), and estimates for the other population comparisons ranged from 0.0129 to 0.0263. Our analysis also revealed fine-scale substructure within the Finnish Saami and warns against the confounding effects of both hidden population structure and undocumented relatedness in genetic association studies of isolated populations.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20047643
This study reports extensive genomic data for both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II loci in Norwegian Sami, a native population living in the northwest of Europe. The Sami have a distinct culture and their own languages, which belong to the Uralic linguistic family. Norwegian Sami (n = 200) were typed at the DNA level for the HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, and compared with a non-Sami Norwegian population (n = 576). The two populations exhibited some common genetic features but also differed significantly at all HLA loci. The most significantly deviating allele frequencies were an increase of HLA-A*03, -B*27, -DRB1*08 and -DQB1*04 and a decrease of HLA-A*01, C*01, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*02 among Sami compared with non-Sami Norwegians. The Sami showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The hypothesis of selective neutrality was rejected at all loci except for the A- and C- loci for the Sami. HLA haplotype frequencies also differed between the two populations. The most common extended HLA haplotypes were A*02-B*27-C*01-DR*08-DQB1*04 in the Sami and A*01-B*08-C*07-DR*03-DQB1*02 in the other Norwegians. Genetic distance analyses indicated that the Norwegian Sami were highly differentiated from other Europeans and were most closely related to Finns whose language also belongs to the Uralic linguistic family. In conclusion, the Norwegian Sami and the non-Sami Norwegians were significantly different at all HLA loci. Our results can be explained by the fact that the two populations have different origins and that the Sami population has remained smaller and more isolated than its neighbors.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19935831
The Saami from Fennoscandia are believed to represent an ancient, genetically isolated population with no evidence of population expansion. Theoretical work has indicated that under this demographic scenario, extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) is generated by genetic drift. Therefore, it has been suggested that the Saami would be particularly suited for genetic association studies, offering a substantial power advantage and allowing more economic study designs. However, no study has yet assessed this claim. As part of a GWAS for a complex trait, we evaluated the relative power for association studies of common variants in the Finnish Saami. LD patterns in the Saami were very similar to those in the non-African HapMap reference panels. Haplotype diversity was reduced and, on average, levels of LD were higher in the Saami as compared with those in the HapMap panels. However, using a 'hidden' SNP approach we show that this does not translate into a power gain in association studies. Contrary to earlier claims, we show that for a given set of common SNPs, genomic coverage attained in the Saami is similar to that in the non-African HapMap panels. Nevertheless, the reduced haplotype diversity could potentially facilitate gene identification, especially if multiple rare variants play a role in disease etiology. Our results further indicate that the HapMap is a useful resource for genetic studies in the Saami.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19781941
The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence of the two cultures in Scandinavia has been cited as an argument against population replacement between the Mesolithic and the present [7, 8]. Through analysis of DNA extracted from ancient Scandinavian human remains, we show that people of the Pitted Ware culture were not the direct ancestors of modern Scandinavians (including the Saami people of northern Scandinavia) but are more closely related to contemporary populations of the eastern Baltic region. Our findings support hypotheses arising from archaeological analyses that propose a Neolithic or post-Neolithic population replacement in Scandinavia [7]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19590886
In order to promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing in Sweden we have typed 296 Swedish males, which will serve as a Swedish mtDNA frequency database. The tested males were taken from seven geographically different regions representing the contemporary Swedish population. The complete mtDNA control region was typed and the Swedish population was shown to have high haplotype diversity with a random match probability of 0.5%. Almost 47% of the tested samples belonged to haplogroup H and further haplogroup comparison with worldwide populations clustered the Swedish mtDNA data together with other European populations. AMOVA analysis of the seven Swedish subregions displayed no significant maternal substructure in Sweden (F (ST) = 0.002). Our conclusion from this study is that the typed Swedish individuals serve as good representatives for a Swedish forensic mtDNA database. Some caution should, however, be taken for individuals from the northernmost part of Sweden (provinces of Norrbotten and Lapland) due to specific demographic conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of a small sample set of a Swedish Saami population confirmed earlier findings that the Swedish Saami population is an outlier among European populations.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19040656
A population sample representing the current Swedish population was analysed for maternally and paternally inherited markers with the aim of characterizing genetic variation and population structure. The sample set of 820 females and 883 males were extracted and amplified from Guthrie cards of all the children born in Sweden during one week in 2003. 14 Y-chromosomal and 34 mitochondrial DNA SNPs were genotyped. The haplogroup frequencies of the counties closest to Finland, Norway, Denmark and the Saami region in the north exhibited similarities to the neighbouring populations, resulting from the formation of the Swedish nation during the past millennium. Moreover, the recent immigration waves of the 20th century are visible in haplogroup frequencies, and have led to increased diversity and divergence of the major cities. Signs of genetic drift can be detected in several counties in northern as well as in southern Sweden. With the exception of the most drifted subpopulations, the population structure in Sweden appears mostly clinal. In conclusion, our study yielded valuable information of the structure of the Swedish population, and demonstrated the usefulness of biobanks as a source of population genetic research. Our sampling strategy, nonselective on the current population rather than stratified according to ancestry, is informative for capturing the contemporary variation in the increasingly panmictic populations of the world.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17336475
We have analyzed the two hypervariable regions HVS-I and HVS-II of 200 Finnish male individuals for forensic purposes. The distribution of the haplotypes within Finland was determined by the geographical knowledge of the donors' maternal ancestors. In our population sample, we identified 135 different mtDNA haplotypes. Different mtDNA sequences were further divided to haplogroups using the EMPOP software. The most common haplogroups were H (40.0%) and U (27.5%). Subgroup U5b, which contains earlier described "Saami motif", consisted majority (65.5%) of the sample in the U haplogroup. Analysis of the mtDNA sequence hypervariable regions I and II showed that the mtDNA diversity within the Finnish population sample was comparable to other European populations and uniformly distributed. This is contrary to the Y-STR "minimal haplotype" diversity, which in Finland is lower than in any of the other European populations studied so far.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16985502
The genetic origin of the Sami is enigmatic and contributions from Continental Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia have been proposed. To address the evolutionary history of northern and southern Swedish Sami, we have studied their mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and complete mtDNA genome sequences. While the majority of mtDNA diversity in the northern Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish Sami is accounted for by haplogroups V and U5b1b1, the southern Swedish Sami have other haplogroups and a frequency distribution similar to that of the Continental European population. Stratification of the southern Sami on the basis of occupation indicates that this is the result of recent admixture with the Swedish population. The divergence time for the Sami haplogroup V sequences is 7600 YBP (years before present), and for U5b1b1, 5500 YBP amongst Sami and 6600 YBP amongst Sami and Finns. This suggests an arrival in the region soon after the retreat of the glacial ice, either by way of Continental Europe and/or the Volga-Ural region. Haplogroup Z is found at low frequency in the Sami and Northern Asian populations but is virtually absent in Europe. Several conserved substitutions group the Sami Z lineages strongly with those from Finland and the Volga-Ural region of Russia, but distinguish them from Northeast Asian representatives. This suggests that some Sami lineages shared a common ancestor with lineages from the Volga-Ural region as recently as 2700 years ago, indicative of a more recent contribution of people from the Volga-Ural region to the Sami population.

Bengt Johjansson
Inlägg: 99
Blev medlem: 20 juli 2015, 11:39
Ort: Jukkasjärvi

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Bengt Johjansson » 7 januari 2018, 22:24

Berätta gärna om de av er lästa mångordiga texter på utländska språk, men berätta inte om kvänernas land, för det landet kan vi kväner och känner det genom generationer:

Det mesta här nedan från tråden - Kvänlandsförbundet/Kveenimaayhistyksen version av Norrlands historia - har ju historiskt sett skett i går och är lätta att bevisa. De renskötare från norra Norge har ju knappt huunit kallna i sina gravar. Ser man inte det här, så är man ute i andra syften än att ta reda på.


"Det jag har skrivit här nedan är stommen i Kvänlandsförbundets beskrivning av lappmarkernas och Norrlands historia. Som skiljer sig avsevärt i vad det politiskt korrekta Sverige hävdar att Norrlands historia är, och varit.
--------------------------------------------------
De här samerna
http://www2.foark.umu.se/folk/bd/Sok.as ... tion=S%F6k
invandrade till Jukkasjärvi och Karesuando församlingar från norra Norge efter 1853 med tiotusentals renar, efter att Ryssland stängt gränsen mellan Norge och Finland (under ryskt överhöghet då) är ursprunget till majoriteten av alla renskötarfamiljer i Sverige nu. På 1920-talet tvingades många av dessa, i huvudsak norska renskötare, flytta söderut längs den svenska fjällkedjan ända till Jämtland, om de ville fortsätta vara kvar inom renskötseln, för att framförallt karesuando församling blivit överbetat av de från Norge kommande renarna.
För att vara ett ursprungsfolk i Sverige, så har dessa renskötare längs hela norrlands inland, således en ganska kort historia i Sverige räknat från 1853.

Århundraden, om inte årtusenden, innan dessa norska storhjordsrenskötare, fanns jakt och fiskesamerna och kvänerna.
Jakt och fiskesamerna levde i södra Lappland främst som jordbrukare med renar vid sidan om. På liknande sätt levde kvänerna i norra Lappland.
Storhjorddriften av ren kom med de norska samerna till Sverige efter 1853 i ett så stort omfång så man fick stifta speciella rennäringslagar för deras verksamhet i andra hälften av 1800-talet och efter det.
Jag påstår att de som närmast ligger till att vara de riktiga urfolken i Norrland, om man nu skall utnämna sådana för Norrland, är jakt&fiskesamerna i södra Lappland och kvänerna i norra Lappland, för deras förfäder ägde de forna lappskattelanden i Lappland, som svenska staten på något märkligt sätt blev ägare till.
De forskare som inte har hamnat någonstans där i sina forskningar, har lockats in i politiska underligheter, och därför tappat tråden, menar jag.
Följaktligen är det jakt&fiskesamerna i södra Lappland och kvänerna i norra Lappland som bör tilldelas utvidgade rättigheter över markerna och vattnen, om sådana skall tilldelas, på de så kallade statliga markerna i norr.
Urfolksrättigheter i Sverige kan ju inte ges till storhjordsrenskötare med norskt ursprung med endast 160 år i Sverige! De har ju kommit hit i förrgår bedömt utifrån urfolksperspektiv!
Det märkliga dessutom är att det inte är jakt&fiskesamer och kväner som ropar efter rättigheter och ILO169 högst, de som skulle ha anledning till det, utan de som ropar högst är de från Norge kommande, som är allra minst ursprungliga i svenska Lappland och inte rättighetsberättigade överhuvudtaget av urfolksskäl i Sverige!

Den som vill förkovra sig i om de norska samernas flytt från norr till söder i Sverige kan läsa denna bok: Vägen går krokigt av Ernst Manker från 1936
http://libris.kb.se/bib/880457
I boken berättar bl a Store Idivuoma, med hästminnet, som Manker skriver, varifrån flyttarna startade från norr, vilka som flyttade, var de hamnade i söder och hur många renar varje familj hade med sig vid flytten.
Det finns också en förteckning över det här uppgifterna mitt i boken.
Boken skrevs 1936, flyttarna fortsatte ända till 1950, från att ha startat på 1920-talet."

Användarvisningsbild
Yngwe
Inlägg: 2946
Blev medlem: 15 april 2015, 23:01
Ort: Gränna

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Yngwe » 7 januari 2018, 22:38

Mycket intressant och relevant länkat, citerat och berättat, och jag ifrågasätter inte något som värdefullt.
Men, jag skulle vilja saken så saklig som möjligt då jag tror det kan vara användbart.

Så därför, om vi antar att ursamisk kultur i Skandinavien tar sin början ca 500 f.kr. (något som i sig givetvis kan argumenteras emot) hur ser omvärlden ut.? Är Norra Skandinavien då folktomt så att samerna flyttar in i jungfrueligt land, eller finns där redan folk? Vilka är då dom?

Bengt Johjansson
Inlägg: 99
Blev medlem: 20 juli 2015, 11:39
Ort: Jukkasjärvi

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Bengt Johjansson » 7 januari 2018, 23:42

Jag måstev erkänna att jag inte kan södra Norrlan/Lappland lika bra som norr områdena. Men i Kvänlandsförbundets tråd skriver jag om ryska kartor så här:

"Det finns också gamla ryska (Novgorod) kartor som drar sveriges gräns vid skellefteälven, innan Gustaf Wasa, och så sade också statens ombud i sin plädering på Girjasrättegången (juni 2015) att sveriges gräns gick då.
Men vad de ryska kartorna också visar är att lappar (Laponia) befann sig då vid den gränsen och nedanför skellefteälven dvs inom dåvarande Sverige. Ovanför skellefteälven, dvs norr om Sverige, ända till norra Ishavet utbredde sig kajanski semlja (översatt kvänernas land) på kartorna. Det verkar som att samer flytt från tjuderna eller av annan orsak gett sig av från Ladogaområdet till Sverige, som också nuvarande Finland var del av då. Det här gör det också förståeligt varför de ursprungliga samerna i Sverige skulle bo i södra Lappland nu."

Det finns också en svensk karta 'Carta Marina' från 1539 av Olaus Magnus, som har liknande uppgifter om ett Lappia, som den ryska kartan beskriver ett Laponia vid Skellefteåälven:
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carta_marina
(klicka på kartan på Wikipediasidan för att förstora)
, och även om proportionerna fallera, så börjar de likna något i denna karta. Jag har sett värre.

Bäckahästen
Inlägg: 1563
Blev medlem: 30 april 2015, 22:45
Ort: Blekinge

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Bäckahästen » 8 januari 2018, 05:35

Yngwe skrev:Mycket intressant och relevant länkat, citerat och berättat, och jag ifrågasätter inte något som värdefullt.
Men, jag skulle vilja saken så saklig som möjligt då jag tror det kan vara användbart.

Så därför, om vi antar att ursamisk kultur i Skandinavien tar sin början ca 500 f.kr. (något som i sig givetvis kan argumenteras emot) hur ser omvärlden ut.? Är Norra Skandinavien då folktomt så att samerna flyttar in i jungfrueligt land, eller finns där redan folk? Vilka är då dom?
Innan 500 fKr finns det hällristningar i området precis som i södra Sverige som upphörs att användas vid denna tid. Enligt programmet. :D

jancro
Inlägg: 364
Blev medlem: 5 maj 2015, 15:30

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av jancro » 8 januari 2018, 14:53

Hur skall nedanstående tolkas ? Var det bara samerna eller alternativt samerna och finnarna som fick detta sena befolkningstillskott indikerat av Z - varianten ?
" Haplogroup Z is found at low frequency in the Sami and Northern Asian populations but is virtually absent in Europe. Several conserved substitutions group the Sami Z lineages strongly with those from Finland and the Volga-Ural region of Russia, but distinguish them from Northeast Asian representatives. This suggests that some Sami lineages shared a common ancestor with lineages from the Volga-Ural region as recently as 2700 years ago, indicative of a more recent contribution of people from the Volga-Ural region to the Sami population."

Bäckahästen
Inlägg: 1563
Blev medlem: 30 april 2015, 22:45
Ort: Blekinge

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Bäckahästen » 9 januari 2018, 05:29

Regeringen har samma åsikt som programmet om när samerna kom till Skandinavien. :D
http://www.regeringen.se/artiklar/2015/ ... ch-urfolk/

anganatyr
Inlägg: 2539
Blev medlem: 16 april 2015, 17:58
Ort: Blekinge

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av anganatyr » 4 februari 2018, 10:04

Ytterligare ett inlägg i debatten.
http://tervalampi-arkfoto.blogspot.se/2 ... assiv.html

Här är arbetet som blogginlägget är baserat på.
http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-02825-9

Jaska
Inlägg: 13
Blev medlem: 17 juli 2018, 13:09

Re: När kom samerna till Skandinavien?

Inlägg av Jaska » 17 juli 2018, 16:12

Jag kan förstå svenska, men det är mycket långsamt att skriva på det. Därför jag skriver på engelska, om det är OK.

When did the Saami come to Scandinavia?

The answer is different for different levels: genes, language and culture.

One can argue that we can only talk about the Saami from that moment onwards, when they spoke Saami language and called themselves Saami. The Proto-Saami language was spoken in Southern Finland around 0 BC/AD. Soon after that the Saami (carriers of the Saami language) spread to Lapland and Scandinavia.

Luobbal Sámmol Sámmol Ánte (Ante Aikio): An essay on Saami ethnolinguistic prehistory
https://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust266/sust266.html

Genetically, of course, the Saami are descendants of both the older inhabitants of Finland and Scandinavia, and the later newcomers from the different directions. A new study shows a significant gene flow from Siberia to Northern Finland. Furthermore, the Middle Iron Age Levänluhta people (in Southern Ostrobothnia) were very close to the modern Saami.

Lamnidis et al 2018: Ancient Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and spread of Siberian ancestry in Europe.
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv ... 7.full.pdf

About “ursprungsfolk”: it is just a political status for those people who are not majority in their own national state and who were there already when the modern national states emerged. Majority people cannot get this status, because they don’t need it: it is inferior to the “ruling”/majority ethnicity of the state.
https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ursprungsfolk

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